The National Socialists first held Party Rallies in Nuremberg in 1927 and in 1929. From 1933 to 1939, they systematically extended the grounds around Dutzendteich lake lake for their annual Party Rallies. The area served as the location for the National Socialist cult, for the demonstration of power and mobiliza tion of the masses. In 1934, the architect Albert Speer was given the task of creating an overall plan for an area of 11 square kilometres with suitable assembly areas. According to this plan, the Luitpold Arena, the Zeppelin Field, the March Field and the Congress Hall were to be the central features. With the beginning of World War II, on 1 September, 1939, the construction work was to a large degree abandoned. Nowhere else in Germany can the remains of NS architecture be seen to such an extent until today. Since 1973, the buildings have been under a historical monument preservation order.
|1914–1918||World War I|
|1927, 1929||NSDAP Party Rallies in Nuremberg|
|1933||NSDAP Seizes Power|
|1933–1938||Annual NSDAP Party Rallies in Nuremberg|
|1939–1945||World War II|
|1945–1946||Nuremberg Trials of the Main War Criminals|
Model of Party Rally Grounds from northerly perspective (Stadtarchiv Nuremberg).
The “Hitler Youth” (Hitler-Jugend HJ, founded in 1926), was the youth organisation of the NSDAP. After Hitler‘s rise to power, in 1933, all other youth organisations were dissolved, forbidden, or taken over by the “Hitler Youth”. The “ Hitler Youth” became the state youth organisation and was the main educator next to the home and the schools.
Abbreviation of “Kraft durch Freude” (Strength Through Joy), an organisation of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) intended to influence the leisure time of workers and employees in all professions according to the National Socialist ideology of the “unity of the people”.
The National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei NSDAP) was established in Munich in 1919 under the name of German Workers Party. It was radically anti-Semitic, fought against the Weimar Republic and against the Peace Treaty of 1919. Adolf Hitler was party chairman with dictatorial powers from July 1921. In 1933, has was appointed German Chancellor, and after largely forcing state and society into line, from 1934 he concentrated all political power in his person, as “Führer and Chancellor of the Reich”.
Abbreviation for “Schutzstaffel” (Protection Troops). The head of the SS, Heinrich Himmler, had conceived the SS as the NS elite organisation, and so it won control of the state police, putting both the police and its own SS security services (SD) under the control of the Reich Main Security Office. This authority, together with the Reich Economic Office, controlled the entire system of the concentration and extermination camps. The SS was substantially involved in the murder of millions of people, and during the Nuremberg Trial of the main war criminals was declared a criminal organisation.
German Labour Service
From 1935, a law of the Reich made labour service compulsory. All young men between 18 and 25 years had to do six months of compulsory service. After the beginning of the war in 1939, a twelve month period of labour service also became obligatory for women. The German Labour Service, as the highest state labour authority, was involved in cultivation work and in the building of the motorways.
Army. From March 1935, “Wehrmacht” was the official name of the armed forces of the German Reich. At the beginning of the war in 1939, the Wehrmacht numbered over 3.2 million men, in 1943, half way through World War II, the highest figure of over 11 million soldiers was reached.